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The state of the labour movement in Malaysia

In Malaysia, the trade union movement seems to be weakening, with the number of unions and unionised workers steadily decreasing.

According to the Trade Union Affairs Department, only 875,193, or six percent, of the 14.5 million workers in the country, are currently union members. Union membership in the private sector also shows a marked decrease, dropping from 433,702 in 2009 to 359,206 in 2017.

Traditionally, trade unions have been controlled by laws, first imposed by the British colonial administration. This practice was continued post-independence by their successors, the Umno-led BN.

Malaysian trade union and labour laws fall far short of minimum international standards.

Even when Malaysia wanted to be part of the Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement (TPPA) – itself perceived to be a threat to labour rights – one of the preconditions was that Malaysia should make significant amendments to its labour laws to bring it up to par with minimum human rights and worker rights standards.

Although the government promised to implement some of the provisions of the TPPA despite the deal falling through, no amendments have been made to labour laws.

When there are violations of worker or trade union rights, many Malaysian unions still do not choose to struggle through pickets, strikes or campaigns against employers.

Instead, they choose to lodge complaints with relevant government institutions, which leads to court actions, and possibly the appeal process, which can last for many years.

Even when workers and unions do win, the remedies are weak, having no real impact on employers nor instrumental in bringing about legislative changes. Employers are very happy with the state of affairs, for this method of industrial dispute resolution does not really impact its business and profits. The only victims are workers and unions.

Surviving within a limited space

What has happened to the trade union movement is an acceptance of the limitations imposed on them by authorities, and a choice of surviving within that limited space with a strong adherence to the law, even if that law is unjust.

There is also very little effort to reach out to the Malaysian public or even elected representatives for help in the fight for justice.

Since 1998, Malaysians generally have become braver, and have started coming out in much larger numbers in peaceful assemblies to protest wrongdoings and demand changes. But alas, this has not moved the trade union movement or workers to do the same, despite the continued erosion of worker and trade union rights.

The absence of a progressive and dynamic new breed of worker leaders may also be a factor. Current existing union leaders seem to have been compromised – worried more about union de-registration, the financial security of union members, or perhaps their own.

But the struggle for better rights and justice will always have an element of risk, and unless unions and their leaders are brave enough to fight for justice and rights, then things will not change.

Union leaders have also forgotten how to use their largest asset, namely the large numbers of workers acting in solidarity.

Union leaders today often choose to act alone, in a representative capacity – but neither employers nor government ministries are really worried because they believe that unions are weak, and that their leaders are incapable of moving even their own membership to collective action.

Even when pickets are carried out, the members that do come out and participate is but a small percentage of the membership. The last few large pickets or protests that occurred in Malaysia were from migrant workers, and many of them are not even unionised.

What happened with Malaysian Airlines when the company decided to get rid of about 6,000 workers is an indication of the state of the labour movement. These were all mostly unionised workers, with the unions affected having thousands of members, and yet not a single dedicated mass protest took place.

To appreciate how the Malaysian trade union movement came to be this way, the history of the labour movement in the country has to be recounted, particularly before the subjugation of the labour movement by the British.

The Malaysian Trade Union Congress (MTUC), unfortunately, is a creature of British manipulation, emerging only after much stronger unions, federations, and leaders were suppressed.

One would have expected that the MTUC and the larger labour movement would have undergone a resurrection after Malaya gained independence in 1957, but that did not happen.

The ‘union way’

With the passage of time, workers themselves have forgotten the past, and how strong the labour movement was at one point in the history of Malaysia.

This lack of historical knowledge, complemented by a lack of education and empowerment of workers and union members by existing “leaders,” keeps unions weak.

For many workers today, the union is simply a “subscription” deducted automatically from their salary by employers and transmitted to their unions, and the little benefit that they get from collective bargaining, which are usually salary increments and bonuses.

Unions now also seldom have regular meetings for its members, if at all, which has been proven to be essential for the strengthening of solidarity, enhancing knowledge of members, and strengthening unions as a whole.

The lack of members being involved in decision-making and union actions has also developed in an overall lack of interest. The dearth of new leaders is also problematic, and we find the same old people retaining union leadership positions for years and years.

Things need to change, if unionism and the labour movement are to become stronger and more effective, but standing in the way are the existing leaders of unions.

It is easy to blame the government and existing laws, but if workers and unions are not ready to fight for better rights together, then the legislative hurdles to overcome will only get taller.

There must be a “union way” – a collective struggle with all workers standing together in solidarity, not a handful of representatives working without the participation or support of their members.

The origins of the labour movement in M’sia

The fact that the Malaysian trade unions movement played a significant role in the political, economic and sociocultural life of Malaysia has been forgotten by many.

The labour movement did actively struggle for independence from the British colonial powers, and contributed significantly even in the determination of the future of Malaysia, including the drafting of the Malaysian Constitution.

But alas, all that is in the past, and the trade unions have been systematically weakened and isolated from involvement in the life of the nation, first by the British colonial masters and thereafter by the Umno-led coalition that has governed Malaysia since independence.

This weakening, nay, annihilation, of the labour movement still continues today through the actions and omissions of a government that seems to not just have embraced neoliberalism, but is also seen today as being pro-business. Of late, government-owned and controlled companies also are seen to be violating worker rights.

The future of the labour movement in Malaysia now depends on the workers and the trade unions, who really must appreciate the history of the Malaysian labour movement and decide whether they would want to struggle to make the labour movement once again strong and relevant, or just allow the slow withering away of not just the movement, but also worker and trade union rights.

Origins of union: Protection and promotions of rights

A worker alone is weak, but workers united are strong. Workers have always naturally come to a realisation that only together as workers will they be able to fight and get better rights and justice at their workplace. As such, more likely than not, there have been organised worker solidarity actions in one form or another ever since there have been workers in Malaysia.

For Malaysia, the advent of worker struggle would have been in the rubber plantations and the tin mines (photo), whose labour was primarily workers of Indian and Chinese origins – a reality then when Malay workers resisted working in such mines and plantations, choosing rather self-employment, small businesses, farming, fishing and the civil service. The majority of the workers in the civil service were Malay.

image: https://i.malaysiakini.com/1183/6a8cb5e221c2cff6227e87392b860da1.jpeg

The origins of organised labour in the form of worker unions in Malaysia date back to the 1920s. Workers then, who were primarily of Chinese and Indian origins in the private sector and Malay workers in the civil service, formed what was known as General Labour Unions (GLUs).

GLU membership was generally open to any worker, with no restrictions with regards to any particular industry, sector or workplace, unlike what we have today in Malaysia.

GLUs were generally formed in different geographical areas all around Malaya. They attracted many workers and were strong. In the struggle for rights, history shows that many actions were taken by GLUs, including strikes.

The labour movement then was not restricted to merely employer-employee matters, but also played an active role in the political, economic and sociocultural lives of the country.

image: https://i.malaysiakini.com/1182/e0559bd1805bb87ea6880e6c2aceed81.jpeg

The labour movement, together with other pro-independence groups (photo - MPAJA), was also actively involved in the struggle for independence from the British. They were also active in the struggle against Japanese occupation forces during World War II.

An example of a union then was the Selangor Engineering Mechanics Association, which was registered in 1928, and was maybe one of the first registered trade unions in Malaya.

The GLUs and many of the unions also started coming together as coalitions and federations – and finally merged into the Pan-Malayan General Labour Union (PMGLU) and the Singapore GLU.

British moves to weaken labour movement

The British colonial powers, worried about the growing labour movement, decided to try to control and influence it. The British colonial government were especially concerned about the perceived influence that the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) and other pro-independence groups had in the labour movement.

Methods the British employed to weaken and control the labour movement included the enactment of laws like the Trade Union Ordinance of 1940, and the appointment of the Trade Union Advisor.

One of the primary objects of this Trade Union Ordinance was to stabilise the labour situation in the interest of increasing production to sustain Britain's economy and its war efforts. It was not concerned about worker or trade union rights.

image: https://i.malaysiakini.com/1182/d582e8e22486f0a78b6d8e7f3d0176ac.jpeg

The Malayan economy at that time was geared to support the wartime needs of Britain. As such, labour and trade union rights, and existing struggles for better rights had to be suppressed and subordinated to what the British considered more important – Imperial Defence.

Malaya then was considered the “dollar arsenal” for the British empire, and the 1940 Ordinance was enacted for the purpose of ensuring a continued flow of revenue to the British Empire.

The stated object in the title of this 1940 Ordinance was, “An Enactment for the Registration and Control of Trade Unions''. Its declared purpose was the fostering of “the right kind of responsible leadership amongst workers and at the same time to discourage or reduce such influence as the professional agitators may have had and to reduce the opportunities or the excuse for the activities of such persons.''

It was clearly to weaken the existing labour movement, and transform existing trade unions and union leadership into what the British wanted.

The existing worker solidarity was to be destroyed, and a “divide and weaken” policy was the aim. Private sector workers were to be separated from public sector workers, and workers from different industry and sectors were to be kept apart.

image: https://i.malaysiakini.com/1182/bf152c9bc3805682034743a887af27d8.jpeg

The role of unions were to be limited to simply “industrial relations” matters – matters between workers and employers only. Unions were no longer allowed to be involved in matters concerning the nation, including the struggle for independence.

This new Trade Union Ordinance now required unions in Malaya to be registered (or rather re-registered), which meant submitting an application to the government, and receiving government approval prior to registration. This allowed the government not to re-register some of the stronger unions, and federation of unions across different sectors or industries.

As such, the new law prevented government (or public sector) employees and private sector employees from belonging to the same union. The affiliation of unions with other classes of unions was also prevented. Restriction was also imposed on the usage of union funds.

The registration rules were somewhat restrictive. For instance, government employees and non-government employees could not anymore belong to the same union or even to affiliate themselves with unions of other classes of workers. The usage of union funds was also restricted - it could no longer be used for a variety of other purposes, including political purposes.

Under these rules, all the existing GLUs (or even other federations of unions across different sectors, industry or occupation) were not qualified for registration and therefore could no longer operate legally.

The new Trade Union Ordinance and laws that came into force in 1946 effectively killed the GLUs, which could no longer be registered (or re-registered) under the new law, and as such were no longer able to operate legally. It also killed off many stronger unions.

What is of interest was that this new policy and laws did not apply to the union movement in Britain and the UK. It only applied to Malaysia. British unions to date are still involved in political struggles, and even political parties like the Labour Party, in the UK.

This article was first published by Aliran here. Malaysiakini has been authorised to republish it.
Read more at https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/402157#5oTpkg3SfrXDCr0M.99
Read more at https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/402284#p6EXEpVh3UZlvXp1.99

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Solving Malaysia’s academic problems

Gerak wishes to thank FMT for covering Professor Omar Shawkataly’s talk yesterday under Gerak’s Seminar Series.

Gerak reiterates that many academic ill-practices and acts of misconduct happen at universities, with very few reported and only a handful investigated.

Disciplinary actions for investigated cases have been inadequate and fail to send a strong signal to prevent future perpetrators. The malpractices are also indications of the desperate actions taken by a handful of faculty members trying to cut corners to fulfil annual KPI and to gain promotions at all costs.

The main problem is, of course, systemic, primarily due to political interference in the Malaysian education system, including higher education.

As a consequence, we persistently have a situation where the direction of the institutions of higher learning is formulated by those with no real academic experience or vision.

Another consequence is that a number of recruits are also academically questionable, hence easily misdirected. Indeed, we would argue that the malpractices at universities have been committed by academics with no clear understanding of ethics, discipline and professionalism.

This has been further compounded by the lack of guidance by senior academics, many of whom often think of their own self-interests rather than professional goals.

The situation becomes worse when many academics – and the general public – are not aware of the real purpose of university education and the duties and responsibilities of faculty members.

To mitigate this decline, it is clear that apart from the cutting off of political interference, each and every university stakeholder has to play a concerted role. This includes the university board members, the media, all faculty members, alumni (donors), parents, students and administrators.

One clear and practical strategy would be universities recruiting and screening bright and hard-working individuals to be lecturers and to helm our universities, not mediocre and lazy ones.

Proper criteria for selection – and sticking to these criteria – would help weed out the “cari makan” types and bring in committed individuals. This would certainly mean advancing meritocracy and ending “kulitocracy”.

The university is a vitally important social institution. The late US Chief Justice Earl Warren said without free scholarly inquiry, autonomy and academic freedom, universities – and invariably society – will surely “stagnate and die”.

Tiru, tipu, ponteng: Bekas pensyarah senaraikan pelbagai salah laku pensyarah

KUALA LUMPUR: Seorang bekas pensyarah mendakwa terdapat salah laku yang berleluasa di institusi pengajian tinggi tempatan.

Menurut pensyarah kimia Datuk Omar Shawkataly yang mempunyai pengalaman 30 tahun mengajar di universiti awam dan swasta, salah laku itu bukan sahaja melibatkan jenayah akadamik seperti plagiarisme dan mencuri kerja penyelidikan, tetapi juga gangguan seksual dan sikap pensyarah yang tidak hadir kuliah.

Katanya, ramai pensyarah tiada nilai etika tetapi hanya dikenakan hukuman ringan seperti persaraan awal atau diminta meninggalkan institusi mereka secara diam-diam.

“Itu bukan hukuman, saya rasa ia adalah ganjaran kerana mereka diberi cuti tahunan,” kata Omar pada forum mengenai masalah integriti dan etika di kalangan ahli akademik yang dianjurkan oleh kumpulan akademik Gerakan Tenaga Akademik Malaysia (Gerak), di Universiti Nottingham Malaysia, malam tadi.

Omar berkata pihak universiti tidak menghiraukan aduan yang dibuat.

“Mereka tidak mahu universiti berada dalam imej yang tidak baik,” katanya.

Omar menyenaraikan pelbagai kes yang pernah dilaporkan oleh pelajar dan kakitangan universiti.

Salah satu daripadanya melibatkan pensyarah yang meluluskan pelajar dengan gred A atau B tanpa menandakan kertas peperiksaan. Perkara itu didapati berlaku selama 15 tahun, tetapi hanya diketahui selepas siasatan oleh ketua jabatan yang baru dilantik. Pensyarah itu diminta bersara atas pilihan sendiri dan diberi ganjaran kencana (golden handshake).

Seorang lagi pensyarah menterjemahkan kandungan buku lama dan mendakwa ia sebagai karya asalnya. Buku itu ditarik balik daripada pasaran, tetapi pensyarah itu dibenarkan bersara secara diam-diam.

Seorang lagi pensyarah mencuri cadangan tesis dengan tujuan mendapatkan geran penyelidikan. Pensyarah itu meminjam karya pelajar pensyarah lain dan menerbitkannya tanpa menyebut nama pelajar terbabit. Selepas seseorang mengadu, pensyarah tersebut diberi amaran.

Omar berkata terdapat juga insiden dan aduan di mana ketua fakulti atau dekan mengganggu pelajar secara seksual kerana merasakan mereka mempunyai kuasa. Bagaimanapun, ia tidak dilaporkan.

Ahli keluarga periksa kertas

Memberikan satu lagi contoh, Omar berkata terdapat kes di mana pensyarah menjadi pemeriksa tesis pelajar suaminya, abang menjadi pemeriksa untuk kertas pelajar adiknya, dan bapa mentua menjadi pemeriksa untuk kertas pelajar menantunya.

Omar turut memberi contoh penipuan dalam permohonan mendapatkan geran akademik. Peralatan yang sama digunakan untuk setiap geran tetapi tuntutan dibuat setiap kali pembelian baharu.

Ada juga kes pensyarah yang ponteng tugas. Salah satu daripadanya melibatkan seorang pensyarah tidak hadir mengajar selama 3 tahun dan didapati mengajar secara sambilan di sebuah kolej swasta. Dia kemudian diberikan persaraan pilihan, tanpa tindakan lain diambil.

Seorang lagi pensyarah tidak hadir bekerja selama 40 hari, sehinggakan ketua jabatan terpaksa menghantar kakitangan untuk memujuknya kembali bekerja.

Seorang pensyarah pernah menipu dia mempunyai 3 ijazah. Perkara itu bagaimanapun diketahui selepas beberapa tahun.

Ada juga pensyarah yang cuba membuat keuntungan, dengan mewajibkan buku mereka dibeli pelajar.

Omar berkata beliau berkongsi pengalamannya berdepan salah laku itu sebagai mesej kepada institusi pengajian tinggi.

“Lembaga universiti harus serius mengambil tindakan terhadap mereka yang ditangkap melakukan tindakan yang tidak beretika,” katanya.

Haruskah jurulatih bola pergi?

15 NOVEMBER — “Kalau pemergian saya dapat menyelesaikan segala masalah yang membelenggu pasukan kebangsaan ketika ini, siapkan surat dan saya boleh tandatangani serta merta,” kata Velo Ningada

Sememangnya tujuh perlawanan tanpa kemenangan bukan satu keputusan yang baik bagi mana-mana pengendali pasukan, baik dalam bola sepak atau sukan lain.

Isu dan desakan memecat jurulatih kini kembali lagi terutama bagi pasukan bola sepak Malaysia.

Sebagai jurulatih untuk “pasukan elit” tidak menjadikan seseorang jurulatih kelihatan cemerlang. Nama-nama besar dalam sejarah bola sepak tempatan kita tidak terkecuali.

Sir Alex Ferguson dilantik sebagai pengurus di Old Trafford pada 6 November 1986. Trofi pertamanya untuk Manchester United adalah Piala FA England di akhir musim 1989-1990 ketika menentang Crystal Palace. Gelaran liga pertama beliau sebagai pengurus dan jurulatih di England adalah pada musim 1992-1993.

Ia mengambil masa tiga tahun untuk meraih kejayaan pertama tambahan dua tahun lagi untuk pencapaian utama di liga utama. Itulah pembuka untuk seorang ahli sukan paling terkenal dalam sejarah bola sepak.

Pemecatan, merehatkan  atau pengunduran diri jurulatih bola sepak Malaysia dan banyak lagi jurulatih sukan lain kerana prestasi pemain dan pasukan yang lemah pasti menjadi tajuk utama.

Ada yang mengatakan ia adil dan patut; ada yang mengatakan ia tidak sesuai untuk berbuat demikian.

Ada juga persoalan sama ada jurulatih adalah “mangsa” badan pengurusan sukan apabila “indeks prestasi” tidak dipenuhi.

Adakah kita kini lupa atau adakah kita terlalu ingin menjadi pemenang dalam semua perkara yang kita lakukan?

Adakah kita meletakkan begitu banyak kepentingan dalam memenangi sukan sehingga ia dengan terang-terangan mengabaikan keperluan dan kesejahteraan para atlet?

Sebagai jurulatih, kemenangan sememangnya sangat penting. Apabila pasukan atau atlet anda menang, apakah itu bermakna anda melakukan tugas anda dengan lebih baik? Adakah ia menjadikan anda jurulatih yang lebih berkesan?

Begitu juga, apabila atlet anda gagal, apakah itu bermakna anda gagal? Adakah atlet dan pasukan kehilangan bukti konkrit ketidakcekapan anda?

Tidak seorang pun daripada kita tahu apa yang tercatat di dalam kontrak di antara jurulatih dan badan sukan itu?

Dalam perkembangan terkini, seseorang “jurulatih” adalah merupakan “kambing hitam”.

Berapa ramaikah pemain atau atlet yang kita tahu merupakan pemenang atau juara sebenar, atau pasukan sukan yang manakah yang benar-benar layak digelar  juara? Kita harus realistik dalam meletakkan sasaran.

Seharusnya, kita hendaklah menjadikan sukan dan permainan aktiviti keutamaan yang menjadikan kita sihat dari segi mental, fizikal dan rohani.

Namun setelah sukan dikomersialkan dan sejak sukan memasuki era “profesional”, kejayaan dan kemenangan telah menjadi percakapan semua orang.

Sudah tentu kita tahu bahawa sukan sepatutnya “semua tentang permainan.” Kita harus sedar dan tahu bahawa bimbingan dari seorang jurulatih adalah tentang  memodelkan peranan yang baik, meningkatkan harga diri dan membangunkan watak.

Selain dari  itu, seseorang  jurulatih hendaklah mengutamakan kebajikan dan kebahagiaan pemain. Seorang jurulatih tidak perlu menjadi ahli sains untuk mengetahui semua perkara ini.

Budaya kemenangan kini telah menjadi sangat penting bagi kita, kerana dengan menjadi “nombor satu” ia merupakan petunjuk kejayaan dan kecekapan kejurulatihan.

Kebanyakan jurulatih sukan, kelab, sekolah tinggi dan kolej telah melupakan misi sebenar mereka sebagai profesional .

Ramai juga jurulatih dan pemain terlupa dan percaya bahawa hasil kemenangan adalah jauh lebih penting daripada proses penyertaan, perkembangan karakter dan kesejahteraan para atlet mereka.

Mereka turut percaya bahawa kegagalan prestasi atlet adalah mencerminkan kegagalan dalam proses pembentukan, pembangunan dan pembinaan pasukan.

Dan mengapa mereka tidak berasa seperti ini apabila jurulatih di setiap peringkat sentiasa dikritik dan dipecat kerana tidak cukup membantu membawa kejuaraan.

Namun, Brian Clough, seorang pengurus terhebat dalam Liga Perdana Inggeris, melihatnya berbeza: “Pemain kalah dalam permainan, bukan taktik. Terdapat ramai ‘tin kosong’ yang bercakap mengenai taktik dan mereka adalah orang yang hampir tidak tahu bagaimana untuk menang di permainan domino”.

Beliau juga percaya bahawa jika berlakunya pemecatan, ia tidak semestinya berakhir dengan jurulatih. “Sekiranya seorang pengerusi memecat pengurus yang mereka sendiri lantik dan pilih, dia juga harus pergi bersama.”

Sekiranya ia memang berlaku, hayatilah intipati kenyataan “bukankah kemenangan datang dan dihasilkan daripada latihan yang terbaik”. Jurulatih Vince Lombardi juga pernah berkata: “Kemenangan bukanlah perkara yang paling penting. Ia adalah satu kemestian”.

Azizi Ahmad The Malaymail Online Projek MMO Pendapat 15 November 2017

Sorotan sejarah Bugis di Tanah Melayu

BUGIS merupakan suku etnik yang berasal dari Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia (Kamus Dewan, 2010). Mereka tergolong dalam kelompok suku bangsa Toraja, Mandar dan Makassar. Tanah asalnya adalah Celebes (Sulawesi) dan negara atau kerajaannya adalah negara maritim.

Dahulu Sulawesi adalah pusat perdagangan yang besar di kepulauan Nusantara. Kini, populasi­nya mencapai empat juta yang mendiami hampir seluruh kawa­san Sulawesi Selatan. Majoriti me­reka beragama Islam. Kaum Bugis bersusuk tubuh yang tidak terlalu tinggi, namun mereka ter­kenal ber­semangat waja dan berani menghadapi cabaran.


SUKU Bugis berjaya mengekalkan seni dan budaya mereka walaupun telah berhijrah ke tempat lain. GAMBAR HIASAN/UTUSAN

Sejarah Bugis merakamkan bahawa mereka terkenal sebagai pelaut, pahlawan yang gagah berani dan pedagang yang berjaya.

Mereka memang terkenal da­lam bidang maritim dan perdaga­ngan dengan melintasi lautan dan benua ke pelbagai wilayah sehingga ke Australia dan Afrika. Bahan perdagangan utama mereka ialah rempah ratus dan kemenyan.

Kapal Dagang mereka dikenali sebagai ‘Kapal Bugis’ yang mempunyai tanda ‘rehal’ pada haluan sebagai pemecah angin. Mereka juga memiliki pasukan perahu-perahu penyerang dengan pelbagai alat senjata yang menggerunkan musuh. Inggeris dan Belanda mengakui bahawa kaum Bugis adalah pahlawan yang berani serta sangat pintar dengan teknik propaganda.

Di Sumatera, suku Bugis terdapat di wilayah Jambi di mana mereka mengembangkan seni dan budaya masyarakatnya yang khas dan unik. Jambi menjadi wilayah yang cukup strategik bagi mereka kerana berhadapan dengan Laut Cina Selatan dan Laut Pasifik.

Orang Bugis sangat berpegang kepada konsep Siri dan pesse yang bermaksud malu dan harga diri yang meletakkan maruah diri sebagai sesuatu yang mesti dipertahankan. Prinsip yang dipegang itu menjadikan mereka memiliki semangat kental dalam alam ma­ri­tim sehingga terungkap kata-kata, “sekali layar berkembang, pantang haluan kembali mengarah ke pantai.”

Prinsip itu juga menjadikan mereka pahlawan yang berani dalam medan peperangan, termasuk perkasa menentang penjajahan seperti yang dilakukan oleh Sheikh Yusof Makasar yang mempertahankan Tanah Bugis-Makasar dari penjajahan Belanda sehinggalah ulama yang terkenal itu diasingkan ke Selatan Afrika dan meninggal dunia di sana.

Pada tahun 1667-1777 Masihi (abad ke-7), Makasar jatuh ke tangan Belanda. Kesannya, berlaku migrasi suku bangsa Bugis secara besar-besaran ke pelbagai tempat dan wilayah termasuk ke Kalimantan, Sumatra, Jawa, Riau, Maluku, Papua dan Tanah Melayu serta wilayah Sabah dan Sarawak. Malah, mereka turut berhijrah ke Australia dan Afrika.

Mereka bercampur dengan suku bangsa lain di negeri-negeri terbabit, namun suku Bugis berjaya mengekalkan pengaruh kehidupan mereka, terutama dalam seni dan budaya.

Bugis mempunyai catatan sejarah yang panjang di Sumatera, Kepulauan Riau, Jambi, Sumatera Selatan sehingga ke Johor Malaysia. Sebenarnya migrasi orang Bugis ke beberapa kawasan di Tanah Melayu telah bermula pada abad ke-15 kesan daripada perubahan sosiopolitik, ekonomi dan agama. Mereka pernah terlibat dalam menentang penjajahan belanda di Melaka.

Salah seorang tokoh pahlawan Bugis iaitu Raja Haji, dianggap mati syahid di Teluk Ketapang berhampiran bandar Melaka pada 1784 kerana berjuang menentang Belanda yang menguasai Melaka ketika itu (A. Samad Ahmad, Kerajaan Johor-Riau, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1985).

Keturunan Upu Tanderi Burong Daeng Rilaka putera Lamadusalad, Raja Bugis berkerajaan di Luwuk dan dianggap yang mula-mula sekali memeluk Islam telah memainkan peranan penting membuka penempatan di Johor, Kuala Selangor, Klang dan Melaka. Penempatan mereka itu bermula menjelang tahun 1680 dan sekali gus memainkan peranan penting dalam sejarah peradaban Bugis di Tanah Melayu.

Peranan aktif Bugis di Tanah Melayu dimainkan oleh putera-putera Bugis berlima (dari keturunan Daeng Rilaka), iaitu Daeng Parani, Daeng Marewah, Daeng Chelak, Daeng Kemboja dan Daeng Merambun. Mereka campur tangan dalam pergolakan politik tempatan dengan memihak kepada sesuatu pihak dalam pertelingkahan. Dari keturunan Daeng Rilaka inilah telah dimahkotakan sebagai Sultan Johor dan Sultan Selangor.

Pada hemat penulis, untuk memahami lebih lanjut politik awal Bugis di Tanah Melayu adalah melalui buku Salasilah Melayu dan Bugis dan Sekalian Raja-rajanya dan Tuhfat Al-Nafis (Hadian Yang Berharga) yang dikarang oleh Raja Ali Haji dijadikan rujukan utama. Menurut sejarawan tanah air, Zainal Abdin Abdul Wahid, seseorang yang ingin mengetahui dan menulis dengan sempurna sejarah negeri-negeri Melayu, terutamanya Johor, Riau dan Se­langor wajar merujuk kepada Tuhfat al-Nafs.

Karya besar itu adalah karya pensejarahan Raja Ali Haji yang utama dan ditulis pada sekitar 1860-an (pertengahan kurun ke-19). Ia menerangkan aktiviti orang Bugis sejak kurun ke-17 sehinggalah pertengahan kurun ke-19.

Antara tokoh penting Bugis yang menyumbang dalam penghasilan karya besar dunia kesu­sasteraan Melayu ialah Raja Ali Haji. Tokoh Bugis itu ialah cucu kepada Raja Haji yang mati menentang kuasa Belanda di Melaka.

Selain Salasilah Melayu dan Bugis dan Sekalian Raja-rajanya dan Tuhfat Al- Nafis, beliau juga telah mengarang Gurindam Dua Belas (1847), Bustan al- Katibin (1851), Thamarat al-Muhammah (1857) dan beberapa karya lain. Karya-karya tersebut telah menjadi khazanah bernilai dalam bidang kesusasteraan klasik tanah air.

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Digital technology in our classroom

The ‘digital classroom’ is now the talk of our education system but schools with PAK-21 classes were funded with the cooperation of the Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) and alumni associations of the schools concerned, and the private sector.

Even our Prime Minister  was visually attracted to the use of the smart gadgets in the classroom and found the teaching and learning process more interactive, as well as capable of stimulating the students' interests and making the class more exciting.

We are now living in a high tech world, with high tech classrooms. For some educational institutions they do embrace the benefits of using the electronic gadgets for classroom teaching and learning.

The many benefits of using and incorporating technology while teaching, such as adding diversity to lessons, increasing student interaction, and to bringing new perspectives and knowledge to the class are no doubt well known.

Teachers and educators are required or instructed to make use the best tools of technology and MOOC platforms such as vleFrog, Schoology, Edmodo, Moodle or any other software provided by the ministry.

Educators and parents need also recognize the downsides resulting from inappropriate or overuse of technology which will have serious and long term consequences.

An article by Psychology Today mentioned about using technology can change a child’s brain and the way children think. The use of technology can alter the actual wiring of the brain.

Even now we can see parents providing their children mobile media even for children under the age of two.

Teens of 12-17 years old are the frequent group spending time online. It seems that the time spent with technology changes the way their brains work and doing things.

It was also mentioned that video games may condition the brain to pay attention to multiple stimuli; they can lead to distraction and decreased memory. Children using search engines may become very good at finding information but not very good at remembering it.

Children who use too much technology may not have enough opportunities to use their imagination or to read and think deeply about the material.

Meanwhile a report from the United Kingdom wrote that the overuse of technology can affect a child’s mood. It can affect a child’s ability to empathize and changes the way children feel.

Children on computer games and home internet for more than four hours do not have the same sense of wellbeing than who used less. Those children with less physical contact might have difficulty developing social skills and emotional reactions. Face-to-face interaction made students more sensitive to meaning in expression.

We must also be aware that children on technology may also be succumbed to sexual harassment and cyber-bullying. The improper use of technology can expose a child to numerous risks. Youngsters who utilize innovation may unwittingly share data that can place them in threat.

Sex offenders used social networking sites to get information about the victim’s preferences. And the anonymity of technology can also make it easier for people to bully others online. Teenagers say they have been bullied either by text or on the internet. Technology can open up privacy and safety at risk

Technology maybe to blame for the increased in child obesity. In most pediatric reports obesity are caused by the sum and kind of nourishments kids eat, but the fact is we exercise less as we use more technology. The measure of time we invest inactive expanded and our energy in physical action dropped.

We are certainly not against the use of technology, as with most things, moderation is best. Teachers and parents who want their students and children to experience the benefits of technology, without the negatives should consider these ideas.

As parent, teacher educator or both, the need to monitor the use of technology is a must. Ensure you know how your kids are using technology, ensure restrictions be made.

We must also teach them responsible usage and talk on establishing a positive resolution, be familiar with technology or whatever the current online trend is, so you can recognize and head off any problems early on.

We need to ensure the classroom technology is used intentionally for teaching to the best, not as precedence. We may also at times go back to basic like conducting class outside where you can sit and discuss a topic without the usual distractions.

Technology does make our lives easier and make students have tremendous opportunities to learn and to connect by using it. But with each advantage comes a potential cost. When we understand those costs and can minimize them, we can keep the use of technology positive.

Azizi Ahmad The Malaymail Online What You Think November 12, 2017

KBAT gagal bukan salah guru

SHAH ALAM – Kelemahan guru yang dikatakan sebagai punca sekolah berhadapan masalah Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT) mencerminkan sikap tidak cermat dan angkuh sebuah kementerian dalam membentuk sistem pendidikan yang sesuai dengan pembangunan masyarakat.


Dr Siti Mariah Mahmud

Timbalan Ketua Wanita Pakatan Harapan, Dr Siti Mariah Mahmud berkata, ia juga sebenarnya mencerminkan kegagalan seorang pemimpin memiliki KBAT sehingga cenderung memilih untuk membebankan guru berbanding mengakui kelemahan dari Kementerian Pendidikan.

“Saya percaya ramai guru yang marah dan kecewa dengan kenyataan Timbalan Menteri Pendidikan, Datuk P Kamalanathan yang meletakkan kelemahan guru sebagai punca 60 peratus sekolah berhadapan masalah KBAT yang mula diperkenalkan pada tahun 2013.

“Saya melihat golongan pendidik dan pelajar sering menjadi mangsa kepada sistem pendidikan yang bercelaru yang dilancarkan kerajaan sehingga kita tidak nampak apakah falsafah dan asas pendidikan sebenar negara ini,” katanya dalam satu kenyataan, hari ini.

Beliau berkata, pelajar dan guru bukan memerlukan kemahiran berfikir yang tinggi sebaliknya adalah 'kemahiran berfikir dengan betul dan baik'.

“Begitu ramai yang berfikir dengan tahap tinggi tetapi akhirnya tindakan yang diambil lebih banyak menyusahkan masyarakat dan negara.

“Perlu juga ditanya sejauh mana pula kerajaan memahami tahap persediaan para guru yang akan melaksanakan kaedah KBAT ini di dalam kelas?,” katanya.

Beliau berkata, guru-guru seharusnya disediakan suasana kerja yang sesuai, tidak lagi dilambakkan dengan pelbagai tugasan perkeranian yang tiada kaitan dengan tugas hakiki mereka.

“Kesatuan Perkhidmatan Perguruan Kebangsaan Malaysia (NUTP) ada berkata, isu murid lemah KBAT akan selesai tahun hadapan.

“Kenyataan yang berpemikiran aras rendah ini saya lihat amat tergesa-gesa dan seperti mahu menutup kelemahan kenyataan awal Kamalanathan,” katanya.

Menurutnya, perkara inilah yang paling utama kerajaan tangani dan bukannya melambakkan para guru dengan pelbagai sistem dan aturan yang tergesa-gesa kononnya mahu segera berdiri setaraf dengan negara maju.

[ARTIKEL BERKAITANGuru-guru dilatih untuk KBAT ]

Terdahulu, Kamalanathan berkata, guru-guru kini sedang dilatih dalam proses lebih memahami penilaian KBAT.

Terdapat beberapa inisiatif yang Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia lakukan bagi memastikan KBAT dapat difahami semua.

“Budaya KBAT telah diterapkan di Institut Perguruan Guru (IPG) sejak tahun 2013 khas bagi mereka yang tamat belajar pada tahun hadapan, maka guru-guru baru ini sudah lengkap dengan pengetahuan tersebut.

"Selain itu, guru-guru  pakar KBAT ini turun padang memberikan penerangan pada guru yang masih keliru dengan penggunaan sistem ini,” katanya.

Guru-guru dilatih untuk KBAT

KUALA LUMPUR - Guru-guru kini sedang dilatih dalam proses lebih memahami penilaian Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT).

Datuk P. Kamalanathan

Timbalan Menteri Pendidikan, Datuk P. Kamalanathan berkata terdapat beberapa inisiatif yang Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia lakukan bagi memastikan KBAT dapat difahami semua.

"Budaya KBAT telah diterapkan di Institut Perguruan Guru (IPG) sejak tahun 2013 khas bagi mereka yang tamat belajar pada tahun hadapan, maka guru-guru baru ini sudah lengkap dengan pengetahuan tersebut.

"Selain itu, guru-guru  pakar KBAT ini turun padang memberikan penerangan pada guru yang masih keliru dengan penggunaan sistem ini.

"KPM sudah wujudkan cara-cara terbaik untuk bantu guru dalam aspek KBAT ini," katanya ketika menjawab soalan tambahan pertanyaan-pertanyaan bagi jawab lisan mengenai kesan penilaian KBAT di sekolah rendah di Dewan Rakyat, hari ini.

Tambahnya lagi, KBAT ini dilakukan selari dengan pelan pembangunan negara.

"Kita mahukan anak muda yang menjadi 'job creator' bukannya 'job seeker'.

"Oleh itu, budaya KBAT perlu diterapkan sejak kecil supaya anak muda dapat berfikiran jauh kehadapan," katanya lagi.

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Give leeway to teen errors

I READ with interest the repartee “Mistakes can be made but be accountable too”. This is a peculiar assessment of my letter. I called for accountability in my letter – I suggested three points deduction as a weightage for fairness and as a method to balance human nature and the human future.

And, what I called for in the letter was about reflecting the context, intention, future and emotion with the errors made by our 17-year-olds in the SPM 2017 English. I called for fairness and justness in deciding a 17-year-old’s future.

Additionally, mistakes do take place every single day despite our insistence for accountability. Doctors unintentionally kill patients every day due to their errors, drivers ram their vehicles onto others also due to their errors and our 17-year-olds might have made errors by not perusing the phrase “another part of Malaysia” while completing their recent SPM 2017 English paper.

What differentiates these errors and our demand for accountability are the subjectivity of the intention. If doctors are accountable for errors they make every day – there will be no doctors left in our hospitals and clinics.

We also learn to differentiate the severity of errors and in some cases the outcomes of the errors. We, as a society, don’t arrest doctors for failing to inform the side effects of medicine that might or might not lead to death.

Adults like “a concerned parent” called upon students to own up to their mistakes because life demands accountability. He ignores the fact that life too offers leeway.

It is because of these leeways that many adults today including our English teachers are in their current positions despite the errors they have made in life.


Telling 17-year-olds to own up to their errors is not about teaching them about life – it is about ignoring the leeways that were provided for today’s adults.

In reading, multiple errors could take place due to nurture and nature – these include semantic errors and skipped words error.

You can choose to own up like you suggested or you can recognise errors happen. What I called for was about recognising human nature and the human future. That might escape some wise adults who have enjoyed the many leeways provided to them for their errors.

A Worried Malaysian The STAR Opinion Letters November 11, 2017

Comprehension a big part of paper

I’m writing this after reading the letter from A Worried Malaysian on the understanding of the students sitting for the English SPM examinations.

At first I thought it was a letter about a blunder in the question. However, after reading the question, I found nothing wrong with it. It was structured correctly and specified the demographic region clearly.

I disagree with the writer’s proposition that the student not be penalised for not comprehending the question correctly. English is not only about grammar and spelling, comprehension is a big part of it.

My teachers and parents emphasised the importance of reading a question several times before answering it. This has stayed with me.

Imagine a real-life work environment: you’re swamped with work and a question comes from the top management. If you make the same mistake, it may lead to losses in your organisation or a loss of confidence in your ability.

If you get it wrong, you get it wrong. SPM is an important examination. One should take the time to comprehend the question. The Examination Syndicate is not made up of psychiatrists who can tell whether the error is intended or not. Just saying.

Rednivar Prai The STAR Opinion Letters November 11, 2017

Exams test real-world skills

I refer to the letter “Error in reading exam question” (The Star, Nov 9).

According to the author, the question was: “If you had the opportunity to move to another part of Malaysia, where would you choose to live?”

I am no language maven, yet I had no problems reading it the first time the way it was meant to be interpreted. There was not even the slightest hint of ambiguity. The question was simple, the wording plain, and I cannot think of a more straightforward manner in which it could have been rephrased. It was by all means a delightful question, credit to the excellent folk at the Examination Syndicate.

I might have tolerated the argument had it been phrased “another part of the country” instead of “another part of Malaysia”. But when the name of our dear motherland “MALAYSIA” is there clear as day for all to see, I cannot fathom how one could even start thinking about other countries, unless they somehow had visual hallucinations of words like “beyond”, “outside”, or “world”, which were nowhere to be seen.

It is also highly unlikely that the author held a post-exam vox populi to be able to claim that many other students “wrote about living in Korea, Britain, Bali, Switzerland, Mecca, Madina, and etc” – I doubt they did.

To blame mistakes made on “immense examination pressure” or “limited time” seems like a handy cover-up for inadequate exam prep, poor management of time allocated, or perhaps a candidate’s over-confidence resulting in failure to double-check the one prompt which he or she was supposed to write an entire essay on.

As much as it is true that school performance has little bearing on one’s success later in life, written examinations certainly do test a few real-world skills such as thoroughness, precision, and the ability to think clearly under stress.

I certainly would not trust a lawyer who cannot interpret correctly a simple sentence like this to draft my legal documents, or a pharmacist prone to dreaming up non-existent words in my prescription, or an obstetrician who is unable to distinguish an intrauterine pregnancy from a life-threatening extrauterine one (within the womb vs outside)!

Mrs Lim Kuala Lumpur The STAR Opinion Letters November 11, 2017


Don’t be too harsh, we are not robots

I REFER to the letters “Read question correctly” by Samuel Yesuiah and “Mistakes can be made but be accountable too” by A Concerned Parent, concerning the English SPM 2017 Paper 1 (The Star, Nov 10).

Examiners need to focus on what the exam paper is actually testing. In this case it is proficiency in the English language, that is, good vocabulary, expressions and accuracy of language as explained by Yesuiah.

If a student has fulfilled these criteria he should be given an “A” irrespective of misreading the question. I agree that he should not be penalised severely and agree to the proposal not to deduct more than three points.

Yesuiah gave a good example of the need to be understanding as in the Miss World pageant finals where a candidate went on the win the contest although she spoke of Mother Teresa, who had already died, when asked to speak of a living legend she admired.

I recall an incident in a university exam; I handed in my paper without realising that there where more questions to answer on the other side of the last page. The lecturer in charge took me into his office immediately after the exam and had me answer those questions.

In another case, I was given the marks the lecturer felt I deserved although I could not attend the final examination because my father passed away on that day. In most university exams, lecturers have already decided on the grade a student deserves before the final exam. The exam itself is more to confirm the grade the student deserves.

The statement by A Concerned Parent, “...the student should be accountable and responsible for his/her own action. No excuses must be given and accepted” is too harsh. We are not robots.

I also feel the need to warn parents about being overly concerned about their children scoring straight As. Building an all-rounded character and personality is far more important. To err is human, to forgive divine.

Dr Peter J Pereira Subang Indah The STAR Opinion Letters November 11, 2017

Read question correctly

‘IF you had the opportunity to move to another part of Malaysia, where would you choose to live? Explain your choice.’

This was in the English SPM 2017 Paper 1 Continuous Writing section. In this section, five essay topics were given. Students had to select one and write 350 – 400 words on it.

It was reported that some SPM students misunderstood the question and wrote about living in other countries instead.

The Continuous Writing section is marked based on impression.

The student is to write the essay based on their experiences, thoughts or reflections.

The examiner will read the script and mark the paper on good vocabulary, expressions and accuracy of language.

Minor and gross errors in writing will be underlined and noted.

The writing is assessed based against the most appropriate band.

The marks in highest band A – range from 44 – 50, that is, full marks.

The criteria for Band A is as follows:

> Language – entirely accurate, with occasional first draft slips;

> Sentence structures, varied and sophisticated – achieve particular effect;

> Vocabulary – wide and precise – shades of meaning;

> Punctuation and spelling – accurate and helpful;

> Paragraphs – well-planned, unified and linked;

> Topic – consistently relevant; and

> Interest – aroused and sustained throughout writing.

It can be seen that an A script should have accurate and precise language and be interesting.

There is a criterion that stipulates that the topic should be consistently relevant.

Based on this, it would be difficult for a student to get Band A even if he had written an error- free piece about moving and living outside Malaysia because the question is about moving and living within Malaysia.

Generally, based on experience, markers will place the student in Band B (38 – 43).

Putting the student in Band A will be unfair to other students who wrote good essays on the topic consistently.

Ultimately the Malaysian Examination Syndicate (MES) will decide on this ‘error in reading exam question’ and will brief the Examination Panel on how to assess the students.

If many students committed this error in reading, which I think may not be many because the ques­tion is direct, then MES might decide they be dropped a Band.

Examination pressure, time and other factors can impact students when they read exam questions and answer them.

Good students are able to meet these challenges and overcome them and achieve excellence.

Some years ago in the Miss World pageant finals, there was a section where the contestants were asked questions in English to test their language and knowledge.

One contestant was asked to talk about a living legend she admired and the contestant talked about Mother Theresa and her contributions.

She spoke eloquently about Mother Theresa and mesmerised the audience and the judges.

The contestant went on to win the Miss World title that year not withstanding that Mother Theresa had died three years before.

Samuel Yesuiah Seremban The STAR Opinion Letters November 10, 2017

Mistakes can be made but be accountable too

I would like to refer to an article wrote by a worried Malay­sian on November 9, 2017 pertaining to those students who possibly answered incorrectly a writing question in the English SPM 2017.

The writer shared his view that students should not be penalised severely for incorrectly answering the given question and instead proposed deducting a maximum of three points for not keeping within the boundary of the question.

The writer further argued the students have captured the same intended themes, and hoped that the Malaysia Examination Syndicate would take this into consideration so as not to deprive the students.

When a student fails to read the examination question properly and does not carry out the task as per instruction, the student should be accountable and responsible for his/her own action. No excuses must be given and accepted.

A disastrous value will be encouraged if the Examination Syndicate agrees with the writer’s arguments. We are simply telling our children that it is fine if we do not take instructions properly and execute them wrongly.

What is going to happen if our future generation carries such values into their workplace?

Not taking proper instructions could potentially cost any entity huge financial losses, have disastrous consequences, and worst still cost precious human lives. Just because it is simply fine to make mistakes.

Children go to school not only to acquire the necessary knowledge. School is also the place where they learn to differentiate between right and wrong before they enter society. And ultimately school is the place where they learn about accountability, credibility and responsibility.

While I agree with the writer that it is important to do well in SPM, it is equally important to teach our children the right values.

A concerned parent Penang The STAR Opinion Letters November 10, 2017

Error in reading exam question

THE English SPM 2017 Paper 1 was conducted on Tuesday. In the continuous writing section, which is worth 50 precious points, students were given five options to choose from. The first option reads: “If you had the opportunity to move to another part of Malaysia, where would you choose to live? Explain your choice.”

As an adult who read this question for the first time, I did not realise it was asking about a place to live within Malaysia. Likewise, many excellent SPM 2017 students who sat for this paper didn’t realise an inclusion criterion set by the question. Some wrote about living in Korea, Britain, Bali, Switzerland, Mecca, Madina, and etc.

SPM is an important examination for students in our country as it will decide the paths they will follow. For excellent kids who wrote about living outside of Malaysia, they have made a mistake in one of the most important examinations in their lives.

These kids have been in turmoil since they realised this horrendous mistake. Those who were aiming for an A+ in English are in extreme shock about this.

It is crucial for the Malaysian Examinations Syndicate to recognise that a mistake like this is unintended and due to immense examination pressure and limited time as students might have rushed to complete the essays. I recognise that this was a mistake but the students should not be penalised severely just because they did not peruse the phrase “another part of Malaysia”.

I agree that some sort of points deduction could be made to be fair to those who answered the question as intended. For example, deducting a maximum of three points for not keeping within the boundary of the question could be made while recognising that the students still wrote essays that captured the same intended themes – moving to another place and reasons for the choice. This, hopefully, would be taken into consideration by the Examinations Syndicate.

It would be truly horrible for kids with excellent English to be penalized severely and given Cs and Ds because of a mistake made under immense examination pressure. They spent 11 long years learning English; please do not punish them for a mistake committed in a single exam. Many students with excellent English will be deprived of their bright futures because of an error they made in SPM. Please be kind and just to these kids. After all, to err is human.

A worried Malaysian Penang The STAR Opinion Letters November 9, 2017

Opting for the easy way out

The writing on ‘Plagiarism and paper chase’ (Nov 7, 2017) is of course of interest to many readers especially the academics.  It seemed to justify the statements and writings that give an idea of ​​the inabilityof our students in a competitive learning world.

Most of the students they don’t really know why they’re studying and what they really want to achieve.

Some of them are there to get a degree and some just to spend some time with friends. These are the students involved in copy and paste or plagiarism.

Forcing exclusive expectations without building up a solid emotionally supportive network based on human and budgetary assets to guarantee student’s achievement is not right.

All those with clear goal in mindalways move in right direction. They’ll learn and get some knowledge requiredto be there. So its lack of interest leads to short cuts.

By what means can students be relied upon to accomplish elevated expectations without very much knowledgeable and arranged educators, excellent educational modules and such fundamental instruments as proper course books and manipulative materials?

Come April and October each semesters, educators and students of higher learning institutions will be hot on heels as one will be busy doing their writings and the other party having a hell of a time to mark and grades assignments.

Though briefed by educators on the implications of ‘copy and paste’ which may lead to plagiarism, still some students didn’t resist copy paste materials.

Students are said to be busy with all sorts of activities and didn’t want to spend time with studies. It is right to some extent; but not the major cause.

After all, they attended all theirclasses, attempted the quizzes, studied for their exams, but when it came to assignments, a question mark pops-up on why they couldn’t make themsuccessfully right.

Maybe they are not keen on doing the ‘hard work’ they are supposed to do. But my guess is that the ‘copy and paste’  starts in the primary schooling especially the ‘School-Based Assessment’ (Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah).

Can anyone comment on the ‘portfolios’ by our children? As parents, did you go through the ‘portfolio works’ done by them? Can anyone deny that most are ‘copy and paste’?And yet they go through high scoring. The markers and graders, are they aware of this?

A wide range of individuals had beendealing with their education some way or another which was astonishing.

We do agree that, it is quite possible that human to perform similarly great in all regions all the while. Thus, they won't not have had enough time to spend on wanted research and writing.

Shockingly, it wasn't the genuine fizzling variable either.

Students in our generation are not used to using or finding other references such as card catalogs so it may behard for them to use it when they need to.

Lack of reference materials may cause students to continuously use online resources, which could be unreliable.

Students' academic performances are being affected for it is hard to understand the lessons if there are no proper and reliable references to study.

What comes to me is that the students lack writing skills. In spite of the fact that the semester framework is said to permit students to think critically  and utilize their diagnostic capacities while considering, they were "shocking" acquainted with another educational  culture where they were urged to address, reflect and contend during the time spent autonomous learning.

Be that as it may, when they are needed to write down on paper, the majority of them got desensitized.

They didn't know how to change their contemplations into sentences, how to mesh sentences into sections and how to orchestrate passage to talk their psyches unmistakably. Which language and organization ought to be utilized to make their work look scholastic?

We just cannot blame the said rote learning schooling that never allowed them to learn and experience the art of writing.

I also don’t think that the system never permitted them to think and write differently than what was the part of their books or notes given by teachers.

So when they enrolled as college students, it was a new scenario where they not only had to think independently but also supposed to express genuinely.

They now had the feeling that writing is exhausting, terrifying and excessively difficult, with the exception of the individuals who originated from far reaching tuition based schools or had characteristic styles and interests for composing.

For the most part, they needed expertise, fearlessness, excitement, vitality, time and expert direction on the most proficient method to form their assignments.

In this way, they were left with the main or potentially simple way out that was Copy and Paste. At any rate, along these lines, they could present their course writing extends on time.

There is some issue at teaching side too. It is found and encountered that a considerable lot of the educators are less sincere to their profession.

They give marks for simply their own particular composed notes as opposed to requesting that students get included in gainful examinations, genuine stories and contextual investigations.

Some educators themselves lacked the ‘pedagogical content knowledge’.


Such educators are additionally contributing in copy and paste, so the entire framework should be surveyed.

Educating is an honorable calling and an educator can make contrast through creating eras. There’s no such thing as sympathy in marking.

We do have the programs to help them learn the art of writing and composition; that took them from correct grammar to the use of Microsoft Word, general composition, critical reviews and research papers writing. But maybe they are not serious enough, not given ample hours of tution or even the instructors are just plain knowledge themselves.

There should be Professional Creative Writing Programs in various genres of Fiction and Non-Fiction as part of the degrees respectively. It would help students to trust themselves with their skills and professional approach towards their work.


Azizi Ahmad The STAR Opinion Letters November 9, 2017

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