kheru2006 (kheru2006) wrote,
kheru2006
kheru2006

Padah Revolusi Kebudayaan makan tuan

Menurut Dr. Li Zhisui dalam bukunya The Private Life of Chairman Mao, Lin Biao dan Jiang Qing menjalin pakatan kerjasama pada awal 1966. Menerusi satu pertemuan dua minggu pada Februari 1966 di Shanghai, mereka mengatur strategi menjelang pelancaran Revolusi Kebudayaan pada pertengahan tahun itu.

Menurut Dr. Li Zhisui, "What surprised me ... was the new relationship between Jiang Qing and Lin Biao: Lin Biao's route to power would be through the Chairman's wife. He would win Mao's support by first winning his wife's… By calling upon Jiang Qing to serve as a publicist for her husband, Lin Biao was also deliberately catapulting the chairman's wife into power. I was uneasy from the start. Jiang Qing with political power could be dangerous indeed (halaman 452)."

Menurut Dr. Li juga, Mao Tse-tung, "…was pursuing a two-pronged attack. He was calling the Politburo standing committee to criticize leading bourgeois intellectuals. At the same time, he was going outside the standing committee and the party hierarchy to foster a rival group centering around his closest allies - Jiang Qing and Kang Sheng in particular - whose task was to attack Mao's enemies within the standing committee and the central secretariat of the party. The move was unprecedented. Never before had Mao launched an all-out attack against such high-level officials (halaman 452)."

Panduan

Mao mengaturkan mesyuarat jawatankuasa tetap politburo Parti Komunis pada 24 April 1966 khusus untuk meluluskan satu dokumen yang disediakan oleh Chen Bo-da atas arahan Mao. Dokumen itu menjadi panduan Revolusi Kebudayaan dan seluruh China mengenali dokumen itu sebagai Pekeliling 16 Mei mengambil sempena tarikh ia diluluskan iaitu pada 16 Mei 1966. Menurut Dr. Li, fokus Revolusi Kebudayaan seperti yang dinyatakan dalam pekeliling itu, "…was not about academic issues. Mao was launching what he called a "vigorous attack" on bourgeois elements within the party, the government, and the army… But when he (Mao) showed me the list of members or the new Central Cultural Revolution Small Group, my heart sank. The leftist Chen Bo-da was the head, and Kang Sheng was advisor. Jiang Qing had been appointed first deputy director. The sycophantic Wang Ren-zhou and Shanghai leader Zhang Chun-qiao were deputy directors. The members, Wang Li, Guang Feng, Qi Ben-yu and Yao Wen-yuan were all radical leftists. The initial suggestions Mao said had been made by Lin Biao (halaman 458)."

Jung Chiang dalam bukunya Wild Swans berkata, politburo Parti Komunis pada Februari 1966 telah membuat resolusi tentang Revolusi Kebudayaan. Ketika itu, Mao Tse-tung tidak berada di Beijing. Resolusi itu memenuhi kehendak majoriti ahli politburo yang mahukan Revolusi Kebudayaan tidak menjadi senjata untuk Mao menghapuskan musuh-musuh politiknya. Ia patut menumpukan "…academic discussions (which) must not degenerate into persecutions … No wild accusations should be allowed. Everyone is equal before fourth. The party must not use force to suppress intellectuals. But, as the document was about to be published in early May, it was suddenly blocked. There was to be a new Politburo decision (16 May) … Mao tore up the February resolution and declared that all dissident scholars and their ideas must be eliminated.

"He emphasized that it was officials of the communist party who had been protecting the dissident scholars and other class enemies. He termed these officials as 'those in power following the capitalist road', and declared war on them. They became known as 'capitalist roaders'. The mammoth Cultural Revolution was formally launched (halaman 349)."

Bergolak

Menurut Dr. Li lagi, selepas sahaja Pekeliling 16 Mei (1966) itu diluluskan, Mao Tse-tung 'mengundurkan diri' (went into retreat). Begitulah tabiatnya, kata Dr. Li, sebagai langkah strategi. Dia berundur ke Hangzhou di selatan Shanghai dan membiarkan keadaan politik kencang bergolak di Beijing. Kata Dr. Li, "It was his way of allowing the snakes - his enemies - to come out of their holes. We were going to stay in Hangzhou for a while, away from political trouble (halaman 459)."

Semasa berada di Hangzhou itu, Liu Shao-chi dan Deng Xiao-peng datang menemui Mao untuk memaklumkan perkembangan Revolusi Kebudayaan yang telah digerakkan mulai Jun 1966 dan meminta nasihatnya. Tetapi, kata Dr. Li, Mao tidak memberi apa-apa nasihat. " 'Let them handle the problems of the movement by themselves', Mao said to me after the two leaders had left (halaman 459)." Mao thoroughly enjoyed the upheaval his movement had unleashed in Beijing. With Mao withdrawn, his enemies were showing their hands, making it easier for him to strike them down … As Mao's suspicious about as many others around him worsened, his political faith in Jiang Qing grew. Mao wrote to her (Jiang Qing) from our retreat in Wuhan. 'Great chaos will lead to great order. This cycle appears every seven or eight years. The demons and monsters will come out by themselves. Their class character dictates it.' (halaman 461)."

Pada pendapat Dr. Li, Mao sebetulnya tidak pasti apakah Revolusi Kebudayaan akan mencapai kejayaan yang disasarkan. Dia juga tidak pasti sosialisme akan kekal di China untuk selama-lamanya. Puak-puak dalam parti yang berhaluan kanan, katanya akan muncul semula dan merampas kuasa dan dia (Mao) sendiri mungkin dihancurkan (smashed to pieces). Mao Tse-tung juga, kata Dr. Li, telah memberi ingatan kepada isterinya, Jiang Qing, " 'Don't let victory intoxicate you,' he cautioned. 'Think often of your weakness, short comings and mistakes. I don't know how many times I have told you this' (halaman 462)."

Jiang Qing sangat gembira menerima surat Mao yang dimaksudkan itu. Walaupun surat itu menyelitkan kritikan-kritikan Mao terhadap dirinya, Jiang Qing mengarahkan surat itu dicetak semula untuk edaran kepada semua pihak. Bagi Jiang Qing, surat itu ialah bukti Mao menaruh kepercayaan penuh kepadanya. Kesannya, ia memperkukuhkan kedudukan Jiang Qing semasa Revolusi Kebudayaan.

"She (Jiang Qing) had already begun sharing the letter with members of the inner circle when Mao found out, and (Mao) had the copies recalled … I (Dr. Li) have thought often of that letter in the quarter century since (1966-1990). To this day, even with all that has happened, I still see it as evidence that Mao was more politically prescient than even he knew. Lin Biao, whom Mao never fully trusted and whom he was using temporarily in his struggle against his other enemies in the party, did turn against him, and - following Mao's death (1976) - the rightists did return to power (halaman 462)."

Kisah-kisah Revolusi Kebudayaan selanjutnya akan menyusul dalam coretan saya di Mingguan Malaysia minggu hadapan dengan paparan tindakan-tindakan ganas Red Guards yang terdiri daripada murid-murid sekolah yang telah menjadi 'gila' setelah dirasuk pemikiran-pemikiran gila Mao Tse-tung. Abdul Rahim Noor Utusan/Rencana/20140921

Tags: komunis, mao
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