December 12th, 2013

PKM mengaku alami kekalahan teruk

RANCANGAN Briggs yang diperkenalkan oleh penjajah British pada Jun 1950 benar-benar memberi tamparan hebat kepada gerakan Parti Komunis Malaya (PKM) untuk menakluk Tanah Melayu.

Pengunduran Setiausaha Agung PKM, Chin Peng dan kumpulannya pada Julai 1953 dari hutan tebal di Pahang menuju ke selatan Thailand melalui Kelantan merupakan kejayaan besar Rancangan Briggs dan kegagalan besar PKM dalam perjuangan bersenjatanya.

Beberapa orang anggota Jawatankuasa Pusat PKM turut berundur ke selatan Thailand bersama-sama Chin Peng.

Pengunduran Chin Peng dan kumpulannya itu merupakan isyarat jelas kekalahan teruk PKM daripada segi ketenteraan, sejak PKM melancarkan perjuangan bersenjata pada 1948.



Sekumpulan pengganas komunis berkumpul di dalam hutan menerima arahan
daripada ketua mereka.

Akibat kekalahan daripada segi ketenteraan itu, PKM dalam arahan terbarunya pada lewat 1951 terpaksa mengubah strategi perjuangannya termasuk membentuk platun-platun yang lebih kecil dan berundur lebih jauh ke dalam hutan belantara bagi mengelak dikesan pasukan keselamatan.

Usaha PKM untuk menawan hati penduduk Orang Asli yang tinggal di dalam hutan di bawah program ASAL turut terjejas apabila pasukan keselamatan bertindak membina kubu-kubu di dalam hutan berhampiran kawasan kediaman Orang Asli.

Ini sekali gus memberi tekanan lebih hebat kepada PKM untuk mendapatkan sokongan Orang Asli dan juga mendapatkan bekalan makanan.

Tekanan demi tekanan yang dihadapi PKM dan kekalahan besar yang dihadapi mendorong PKM membuat persediaan untuk memanjangkan tempoh perang bagi membolehkan mereka berundur ke selatan Thailand dan beberapa kader kanan PKM seperti anggota Jawatankuasa Pusat parti itu, Ah Su telah dihantar untuk membuka pangkalan di Betong.

Ini disahkan oleh Chong Chor dalam laporan sulit yang mendedahkan bahawa dia terpaksa berada di dalam hutan dalam tempoh yang lama sehingga September 1955 untuk berlindung daripada pasukan keselamatan.

Pada masa yang sama kumpulan Min Yuen yang ditubuhkan PKM turut menghadapi kesukaran mendapatkan bekalan makanan. Tanaman sayur-sayuran yang diusahakan oleh Min Yuen di dalam hutan dimusnahkan oleh pasukan keselamatan.

Kem-kem Min Yuen yang dibina di dalam hutan sering diserang pasukan keselamatan hingga mendorong mereka untuk berundur lebih jauh ke dalam hutan tebal.

Menjelang 1953 hingga 1955, hampir separuh kekuatan PKM yang dibina semasa Darurat berjaya dibunuh dengan hanya tinggal kira-kira 100 orang pengganas komunis dan selebihnya ditahan atau menyerah diri.

Selain mengetuai Unit Penggempur, Chong Chor turut diberi tugas mengetuai unit akhbar PKM Perak pada akhir 1953, ketika beroperasi di Pusing, Perak.

Dia bertanggungjawab mengendalikan penerbitan bahasa Cina. Selain mencetak bahan-bahan Hsueh Hsih. Unit akhbar itu turut menerbitkan Berita-berita Kemanusiaan, Berita-berita Semasa dan Berita-berita Lenin.

Beberapa orang pengganas komunis yang ditugaskan dengan Seksyen Percetakan Akhbar PKM Perak ini membina kem-kem mereka di beberapa lokasi di kawasan Rimba Panjang dan kawasan Sungai Bekor, barat Manong.

Chong Chor turut mengakui bagi memanjangkan tempoh perang dengan pasukan keselamatan mereka melaksanakan strategi berdasarkan konsep Mao Tze-Tung.

Serangan berterusan pasukan keselamatan ke atas kem-kem dan kubu-kubu komunis di Perak berjaya menumpaskan gerakan komunis di negeri itu sehingga Perak diisytiharkan kawasan putih pada 1959.

Ketika berdepan kekalahan teruk itulah, PKM pada 28 Disember 1955 bersetuju mengadakan rundingan damai dengan Kerajaan Perikatan di Baling dalam usaha untuk menamatkan perang.

Chong Chor mengakui walaupun rundingan Baling gagal, PKM telah lama mengalami kekalahan teruk dalam perang bersenjata.



Utusan Malaysia Online Rencana 20131212

Isu-Isu Akhbar Cina

UMNO-BN JANGAN ANGKUH

AKHBAR Nanyang Siang Pau bertarikh 11 Disember 2013 menyiarkan artikel yang mahukan dasar kerajaan yang berpihak hanya kepada satu kaum dihapuskan.

Artikel berajuk ‘Angkuh dan menghina bencana’ yang ditulis oleh Chong Kim Huat disiarkan dalam ruangan Pendapat Yuan Lun halaman C8.

Setiausaha Agung MCA, Datuk Seri Kong Cho Ha baru-baru ini berkata, kita perlu kenal realiti politik dan orang Cina jangan asyik menentang! Kenyataan beliau serta-merta mendapat bantahan daripada masyarakat Cina, yang tidak dapat menerima kenyataan Cho Ha yang seolah-olah mahu kaum itu bersikap seperti hamba abdi.

Jika kita lihat Bapa Kemerdekaan India, Mahatma Gandhi, dia secara agresif berkempen menentang keadaan yang tidak berpihak kepada penduduk negara itu sehingga membuka satu lembaran sejarah yang baharu.

Pemimpin MCA yang mengaku mereka tahu apa erti realiti dalam politik pula bertindak sebaliknya sehingga menyebabkan wujud dasar pendidikan yang menyusahkan orang Cina. MCA juga tidak berbuat apa-apa bagi menghentikan polisi kuota bumiputera yang menekan ekonomi orang Cina yang telah menguji kesabaran kaum itu lebih daripada setengah abad.

Mengikut laporan, kerana kerajaan Selangor mendapat keuntungan, maka ia telah menaikkan gaji wakil rakyatnya.

Barisan Nasional (BN) terus menghentam kerajaan Selangor kerana dikatakan tidak bersikap jujur kepada rakyat! Jika BN bersikap jujur, kenapa ada tiga ketua eksekutif di Jabatan Perdana Menteri yang bergaji sebanyak RM1.87 juta setahun?

Kerajaan Pusat mengalami kerugian setiap tahun. Adakah gaji yang berjuta ringgit itu boleh dianggap perkara biasa dan memang patut diterima? Gaji Ketua Menteri Sarawak, Tan Sri Abdul Taib Mahmud lebih tinggi daripada gaji Perdana Menteri, kenapa tidak dijadikan isu oleh BN?

Dalam pada itu, apabila banjir berlaku di tiga negeri di Pantai Timur, ke mana perginya pegawai-pegawai tinggi kerajaan dan menteri yang dikatakan mahu berkhidmat secara jujur semata-mata untuk rakyat?

Realitinya mereka mengutamakan untuk menghadiri perhimpunan parti yang setiap hari diutarakan dengan ucapan yang tidak baik untuk perpaduan rakyat.

Sebaliknya, masyarakat Cina pula terus bertindak untuk menghulurkan bantuan kepada mangsa banjir. Tanpa disuruh oleh sesiapa, mereka mengumpulkan wang untuk mangsa banjir.

Akhbar-akhbar Cina juga turut menjalankan kempen kutipan derma untuk mangsa banjir berkenaan. Apa yang dilakukan itu adalah ibarat kata pepatah jika ada satu tempat terkena musibah, seluruh pelosok akan tampil membantu.

Semangat suka membantu memang sudah lama tertanam dalam jiwa setiap orang Cina. Mereka menolong tanpa memilih kaum kerana berpendapat setiap individu perlu dilayan secara sama rata.

Tetapi bagaimana pula cara kerajaan membantu mangsa banjir? Bantuan yang dihulurkan dibuat mengikut kepentingan kaum. Segala barangan yang dihulurkan diletakkan logo BN bagi memperkukuhkan pengaruh parti berkenaan.

Orang-orang besar daripada Kerajaan Pusat menggunakan helikopter untuk melawat kawasan banjir dengan diiringi pemberita dan jurugambar untuk memberitahu rakyat di seluruh Malaysia yang mereka mesra rakyat.

Menentang Sistem Aparteid

Perdana Menteri, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak telah menyanjung tinggi ikon antiaparteid, Nelson Mandela. Beliau menganggap Afrika Selatan mempunyai persamaan dengan Malaysia dalam menentang sistem pemerintahan aparteid.

Adakah ini benar jika dilihat kesungguhan kerajaan BN untuk melaksanakan polisi ekonomi bumiputera, dasar petroleum yang berpihak kepada kaum itu, bantuan orang miskin yang majoriti penerimanya orang Melayu dan polisi pemilikan rumah untuk bumiputera.

Sebenarnya kerajaan BN dikuasai oleh UMNO. Parti ini bersikap angkuh dan sombong serta tidak memandang kaum lain yang telah banyak berjasa kepada negara.

Ini sememangnya adalah satu kenyataan yang benar. Cara pemerintahan kerajaan seperti ini akan menimbulkan perasaan tidak berpuas hati dan permusuhan antara kaum. Ia boleh menyebabkan masyarakat menjadi kacau-bilau.

Jika kepimpinan UMNO yang menerajui BN tidak mengutamakan petunjuk prestasi utama (KPI), tidak membantu orang miskin tanpa mengenal sempadan kaum dan tidak menerima teguran kumpulan cerdik pandai, mereka akan membuatkan Malaysia berundur ke belakang dalam demokrasi.

KELUHAN ORANG CINA

PERASAAN tidak berpuas hati peniaga dan orang Cina terhadap dasar kerajaan yang disifatkan menekan mereka turut diulas oleh akhbar Nanyang Siang Pau bertarikh 10 Disember 2013.

Artikel bertajuk ‘Masyarakat Cina tertunggu-tunggu penyelamat’ yang ditulis oleh penulis yang menggunakan nama samaran Choo Han disiarkan dalam ruangan Pendapat Yuan Lun halaman W3.

Pada zaman Perdana Menteri pertama, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, orang Cina telah dilabel sebagai penyokong komunis. Kesetiaan mereka terhadap tempat kelahiran iaitu Tanah Besar China menjadikan kaum ini sasaran pihak-pihak yang berdendam dengan mereka sehingga berlaku kejadian tidak diingini.

Ketika pemerintahan Perdana Menteri kedua, Tun Abdul Razak Hussein iaitu selepas diadakan hubungan diplomatik dengan China, barulah sumbangan orang Cina di negara ini ditagih terutama dalam membangunkan perdagangan dan ekonomi negara. Tetapi pada zaman Perdana Menteri ketiga, Tun Hussein Onn, orang Cina kembali menjadi warganegara kelas kedua.

Kebenaran hakikat itu tidak perlu disangsi dan dipertikaikan. Antaranya, orang Cina dilarang sama sekali mendominasi bidang politik. Sebab itu, parti-parti Cina, sehingga sekarang hanya memainkan peranan sebagai pengikut telunjuk dan dikuasai oleh orang lain.

Walaupun wujud layanan tidak adil, sumbangan masyarakat Cina dalam pembangunan ekonomi negara memang tidak boleh dinafikan lagi. Ramai usahawan Cina berjaya, walaupun mereka memulakan perniagaan dengan sehelai sepinggang dan tangan kosong.

Mereka berusaha gigih dengan titik peluh sendiri untuk meneroka bumi ini dan juga menggunakan pengalaman beberapa generasi sehingga akhirnya menikmati kejayaan dalam bidang perniagaan.

Hakikatnya Malaysia memang memerlukan sumbangan peniaga Cina terhadap pembangunan ekonomi negara ini dan ia seperti anggota badan yang tidak boleh dipisahkan kerana saling memerlukan antara satu sama lain. Bagaimanapun, peniaga Cina kini mengalami tekanan apabila kerajaan secara berterusan memperkukuhkan dasar ekonomi bumiputera.

Dasar yang telah dilaksanakan sejak sekian lama, telah menampakkan kesan positif apabila banyak sektor perniagaan telah dikuasai golongan bumiputera.

Penguasaan ekonomi oleh bumiputera yang semakin hari semakin meluas ini telah memberi kesan kepada peniaga Cina apabila terdapat di kalangan mereka yang jatuh merudum dalam perniagaan. Mereka tidak mendapat sokongan parti-parti Cina yang lemah dan dan tidak henti-henti menghadapi persengketaan dalaman.

Memang diakui peniaga Cina boleh mengorak langkah untuk mengembangkan perniagaan di luar negara dan bersaing ke peringkat antarabangsa, tetapi terdapat juga yang tidak mampu berbuat demikian dan perlu memberi tumpuan berniaga dalam negara.

Peniaga ini menghadapi tekanan yang semakin ketara. Keluhan mereka tidak habis-habis dan kisah sedih yang diluahkan mereka ini memang benar dan nyata.

Di saat kita menghadapi keadaan yang amat pahit ini, diharapkan masyarakat Cina dapat berteriak sekuat-kuatnya sehingga orang pekak dapat mendengarnya.

Kita juga perlu mengeluarkan buah fikiran dan idea-idea bijaksana bagi menyelamatkan masyarakat Cina.



Utusan Malaysia Online Rencana 20131212

Mandela, truly a man of peace

I HAVE met very many leaders during my 29 years as deputy prime minister and prime minister. But none comes close to the stature of Nelson Mandela, freedom fighter and president of the Union of South Africa.

South Africa was a deeply divided country. The whites who came from Europe regarded the native Africans as almost sub-human and treated them accordingly. A policy of separateness or apartheid was made official and announced unashamedly to the whole world. Equality, a creed promoted in Europe for centuries, was rejected by the Europeans of South Africa.

Naturally, the blacks were bitterly angry over their treatment and the occupation of their land by the whites. Although some believed in non-violence, many opted to fight the whites with violence.

Nelson Mandela, as a young man, opted for a violent struggle against the whites. Towards this end, he trained as a guerilla in Yugoslavia and Libya.




In this March 11, 1997, photo, former prime minister Datuk Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamad and his wife, Datin Seri Dr Siti Hasmah Mohd Ali, bidding South African president Nelson Mandela farewell as the latter boards a plane at the Langkawi International Airport.

But he was arrested and imprisoned. He was sentenced to hard labour and at times, he was put in solitary confinement. For 27 years, he was incarcerated on Robben Island, the sea around which was shark infested.

Twenty-six years is a long time, more than a quarter of the lives of most people. It is enough to break anyone's spirit. Or it will make a person extremely bitter. The wish to seek revenge, to pay back in kind the injustice done would be overwhelming in anyone.

Then, in 1990, he was released. Amidst the celebration of the whole world, he went to meet the leaders of Africa in Zambia. I was the only Asian leader to be invited to this African get-together.

Each one of us went to the upstairs lounge to meet him. I was expecting a bitter man, ranting over the injustice perpetrated on him and on his people. I thought if he was not bitter then he must be a broken, dispirited man.

But he was neither bitter nor broken. He was in high spirits. All he talked about was of reconciliation between the blacks and the white, of building a united South Africa, of prospering South Africans, irrespective of colour or creed. No ranting, no anger, no bitterness -- only a deep desire to put things behind and build a future for his country and people.

He was not angry, even against the gaolers of Robben Island. He had befriended them and they made newspapers available to him so that he could follow the developments in Africa and the rest of the world.

He knew a lot about Malaysia, about its independence. But what mystified him was the success of the Malaysian government against guerrillas.

He said that his trainers in Yugoslavia and Libya had told him guerrillas could never be defeated. In the end, they would win. So, how did Malaysia defeat the guerillas?

I explained about the campaign to win the hearts and minds of the people, about securing their safety, about the people eventually turning around to support the government against the guerrillas.

He regarded Malaysia's struggle against British colonialism as similar to the struggles of native Africans against the colonialist. But like most African leaders, he could not picture a former colony of the West developing. It was only after he had visited Malaysia that he believed the newly independent African states could develop. He was saddened by the conflicts which characterised many African countries. He worked hard for peace in Africa and elsewhere.

Mandela was truly a man of peace. He worked hard to curb the anger and bitterness of black South Africans. His towering figure was such that whites and blacks accepted the policy of reconciliation he advocated. No other leader could have done that.

But he inspired and influenced not just the people of his country, but also the rest of the world. The Nobel Peace Prize he was awarded was truly well deserved. But for him, South Africa would have witnessed the same turmoil we are seeing in many African and Middle Eastern countries.

With his passing, the world has lost an icon. The world of today needs such a man much more than at any time in its history. Overthrowing an authoritarian government is not enough. It is the reconciliation that comes after that is important. We see this in South Africa and it is entirely due to its beloved Madiba. He brought not just freedom to his country, but peace and stability. He is truly a great man, a man with a big heart, who has united a country which was so deeply divided that few could imagine any other end except violent struggles, death and destruction for South Africa as blacks fight whites with increasing ferocity.



Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad New Straits Times Online Opinion Columnist 12/12/2013

Need to stay ahead of the education pack

School-Based Assessment: Unresolved issues must be addressed


EXAMINATIONS and assessments are part and parcel of learning and teaching. If they are well designed and purposeful, the scores should "speak" to the teachers of the educational progress of a student.

Public examinations have their objectives and usefulness. Of far greater importance are assessments of, and for learning at school level. They can be likened to taking the pulse of the child's cognitive progress and competencies throughout the educational process.

Formal and informal assessments at school level (penilaian berasaskan sekolah) are not new to teachers but they have become a component of the total evaluation of student learning at Form Three and Form Five. Now that results from school-based assessments are to be added to one-off public examinations scores, a number of unresolved issues and concerns have been raised.

FIRSTLY, there is doubt as to the extent teachers across the country set questions that are of similar knowledge and competency levels.

It is not whether the question design is objective or subjective. It is about levels of questions that have been agreed as the national standards to evaluate, and describe various achievement levels for every Year at primary, and Form at secondary level. This is to ensure that an A score in school-based assessments in any school across Malaysia describes a near similar knowledge and competency level, and students evaluated against a nationally agreed achievement matrix.

When school-based assessment scores are combined with public examination results, the two scores should reflect a student's capability as accurately as possible, as against national standards.

Therefore, to what extent have these competencies and questions designed to evaluate, for example, high order thinking skills, been rigorously tested and standardised, and made available for teacher reference and use?

SECONDLY, teachers in groups continue to attend sessions to up-skill their knowledge and competencies in dealing with the design and scoring of school-based assessments. The sessions should be useful if they include understanding of a nationally agreed evaluation matrix and the different types of test design to evaluate all levels of thinking skills. Of what proportion in every school assessment should there be high order or low level thinking questions?

The purpose of school-based assessments now has a new and critical dimension, impacting on the credibility and validity of results of public national examinations.

How are teachers, supported by state and district level administrative structures, not only enable the smooth transition of this policy change but also the reliability and validity of the school-based assessment scores?

THIRDLY, teachers now find themselves spending more time with the task of uploading the required school-based assessment scores to the central agency. It is reported that high traffic within the critical reporting period has caused the information technology system at the central agency to be slow, crash, or shut down periodically.

The instability of the IT system meant teachers work all hours to upload the scores. If not completed, teachers may find themselves further burdened with having to upload this year's scores, next year, teach new classes, with several sets of new scores to be uploaded. Has the system for reporting school-based assessment scores overwhelmed the teachers and distracted them from their core teaching duties?

The policy change was made to enable teachers to increase their instructional role with emphasis on continuous monitoring of each child's educational progress through school-based assessments of learning. It is both a safety net to ensure that no child is left behind in the learning process, as well as a reminder that school is about education and not a factory churning out A scores.

The international benchmarks are important signposts for the direction in which Malaysia should prepare young Malaysians for the future to enable our country to stay ahead of the rest of the pack. But the unresolved issues must be addressed now to maintain the credibility of the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia locally and internationally.



Datuk Dr Siti Zaleha Abdullah Sani    New Straits Times Opinion Columnist 10/12/2013

Lack of benchmarking, bad decisions bringing education standard down, says former deputy minister

The failure to benchmark local education with international standards and not allowing schools and other stakeholders to make decisions that affect students are the key reasons the Malaysian education system is on the decline, said experts.

Former deputy education minister Datuk Wee Ka Siong (pic) noted that Malaysia was not up to mark in terms of education, even though Education Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin insisted it was, simply because, "we have not benchmarked our standards with the international level of education".

"That's why we have students scoring a string of As here but when it comes to international exams, they can't make it," he told The Malaysian Insider today, referring to Malaysia's dismal performance in the Programme for International Student Assessment (Pisa).


Lack of benchmarking, bad decisions bringing education standard down, says former deputy minister

The country only managed a poor 55th ranking out of 65 countries in the Pisa, which was done by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).


Malaysia's performance in the assessment of 15-year-olds using tests for maths, reading and science has been criticised by several opposition leaders who are calling for a major revamp of the education system.

Wee pointed out that Muhyiddin's statement showed that Malaysia was still trying to convince itself that its education standards was "not bad".

"We tell ourselves that it's not that we are not bad, it's just that other countries are really good because they have this and that.

"But this is not a valid excuse. If other countries can improve and we can't, then our standards will drop," he added.

Wee, who was deputy education minister from 2008 till early this year, said that national examinations in the country have been made too easy compared with years ago when it was tougher to pass.

Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs (IDEAS) chief executive officer Wan Saiful Wan Jan, however, disagreed, noting that the government was already embarking on programmes to benchmark the education system here with international standards.

"We have been doing that by sitting for the Pisa assessment. The government is interested in improving the system.

"The main trouble with our education system is the desire to maintain centralisation of control," he opined.

For most countries with good education systems, Wan Saiful revealed, important decisions were made by stakeholders.

"These are people who are closer to students.

"But in Malaysia, the same decisions on policies are made by those furthest from the students, such as the minister. And it does not help that most educational policies we have are geared for political purposes," he said.

The average mean score in the Pisa test is 494 and the survey tested 510,000 students aged 15 last year, covering three examination sections, mathematics, science and reading ability. Malaysia obtained a mean score of 421.

Even Vietnam ranked 17th in the survey with 511 points while Shanghai-China scored 613 to take first place in the rankings.

Meanwhile, there has been no let-up from DAP adviser Lim Kit Siang, who continued to question Muhyiddin's silence over the Pisa rankings.

The Gelang Patah MP has been on a warpath with the Education Minister since the results of the assessment was announced recently.

"Malaysia’s declining educational standards is presently a taboo subject for the Deputy Prime Minister-cum-Education Minister who does not want to talk or be asked about it, especially after two events in December which highlighted the sad reality that the education system in Malaysia is facing a real crisis of confidence," Lim said in a statement today.

He was referring to the Pisa tests and the World Bank's report that: “Among East Asian countries that participated in the 2012 Pisa, Malaysian students only outperform their Indonesian peers, and lag even lower-income countries (including by a wide margin, Vietnam).”

Lim also criticised the ministry's answer to resolve the issue by forming yet another committee to improve Malaysia's ranking.

In response to the Pisa survey, the education ministry was reported as saying that the special committee would be led by the curriculum development section and would also comprise professional sections from the ministry.

The task of the committee is to identify and monitor initiatives to improve students' performance in international assessments such as Pisa.

In a statement, it said although the recent Pisa results were not encouraging, the authorities were confident that the Malaysian Education Development Plan 2013-2025 would help Malaysia to achieve a better ranking in the next Pisa instalment.

"Clearly, the person responsible for the ministry's statement does not know what is in the National Education Blueprint, for it is not about “getting a better position in Pisa 2015” but breaking out of the bottom-third Pisa bracket and achieving the international Pisa average in the 2015 Pisa and 2018 Pisa, and breaking into a top-third Pisa bracket in the 2021 Pisa ," Lim said.

"In other words, can Malaysia become a 'wonder nation' to achieve what no other country had ever achieved in three Pisa evaluations – a double quantum jump from bottom-third to top-third Pisa brackets?"- December 12, 2013.

The Malaysian Insider 12/12/2013